Minyak Bumi

Minyak bumi atau petroleum – bahan bakar fosil yang merupakan bahan baku untuk bahan bakar minyak, bensin dan banyak produk-produk kimia – merupakan sumber energi yang penting karena minyak memiliki persentase yang signifikan dalam memenuhi konsumsi energi dunia. Citra yang sangat negatif dari minyak adalah – mirip dengan pembakaran batubara – pemakaian bahan bakar minyak adalah kontributor terbesar untuk peningkatan CO2 di atmosfir bumi. Tumpahan-tumpahan minyak dari kapal-kapal tanker juga telah menyebabkan kerusakan berat pada lingkungan hidup bumi.

Negara-negara produsen minyak terbesar, yang bila dikombinasikan memproduksi hampir 45% dari total produksi minyak mentah dunia, adalah Amerika Serikat (AS), Arab Saudi, Russia, dan Republik Rakyat Tiongkok (RRT).

Produsen Minyak Bumi Terbesar pada Tahun 2015:

  1. Amerika Serikat  12,704,000 bpd
  2. Saudi Arabia  12,014,000 bpd
  3. Russia  10,980,000 bpd
  4. Kanada   4,385,000 bpd
  5. China   4,309,000 bpd
24. Indonesia    825,000 bpd

bpd = barrels per day
Sumber: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016

Meskipun saat ini banyak negara yang mendalami potensi energi terbarukan, pentingnya – dan ketergantungan pada – minyak di dunia tidak bisa dipungkiri, ataupun diabaikan. Bahan bakar fosil akan tetap menjadi sumber energi paling penting, dengan minyak berkontribusi 33%, batubara 28% dan gas alam 23% dari total sumber energi (IMF: April 2011). Sumber energi terbarukan hanya berkontribusi sedikit pada total suplai energi primer dunia (energi primer termasuk bahan bakar fosil – minyak, batubara dan gas alam -, energi nuklir dan energi terbarukan – geotermal, tenaga air, sinar matahari dan angin).

Peningkatan permintaan untuk minyak mentah dikombinasikan dengan kekuatiran mengenai ketersediaannya menyebabkan harga minyak mencapai rekor tinggi dalam sejarah pada tahun 2000an. Meskipun tren yang meningkat ini diganggu sementara oleh krisis finansial global 2008-2009, permintaan minyak dunia meningkat secara signifikan setelah 2009 (dan karenanya harganya naik sejalan dengan itu), sebagian besar disebabkan karena level konsumsi minyak mentah yang meningkat di negara-negara berkembang yang menunjukkan pertumbuhan Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) yang subur. RRT berkontribusi untuk sebagian besar dari konsumsi energi dunia dan karenanya mempengaruhi harga pasar dunia untuk sumber energi primer.

Kendati begitu, sejak pertengahan 2014, harga minyak dunia mulai menurun tajam karena lambatnya aktivitas perekonomian dunia (terutama karena pertumbuhan ekonomi yang jatuh di RRT saat pemerintahannya berusaha mengalihkan perekonomiannya dari berorientasi ekspor kepada berorientasi konsumsi) dan peningkatan produksi shale oil AS, sementara Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) memutuskan untuk tidak mengurangi tingkat produksi. Pada bulan Februari 2016 harga minyak sentuh titik terendah selama 13 tahun. Namun, setelahnya mulai pulih.

Harga Minyak Mentah:Zoom: 1h1d5d1w1m3m6m1ymax  
Crude Oil Futures, Continuous Contract (CL1)   2009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ00100100

DatetimeCrude Oil Futures, Continuous Contract (CL1)
Feb 17, 200899
Feb 24, 2008102
Mar 2, 2008106
Mar 9, 2008110
Mar 16, 2008102
Mar 23, 2008105
Mar 30, 2008106
Apr 6, 2008110
Apr 13, 2008116
Apr 20, 2008118
Apr 27, 2008116
May 4, 2008126
May 11, 2008127
May 18, 2008132
May 25, 2008127
Jun 1, 2008138
Jun 8, 2008135
Jun 15, 2008135
Jun 22, 2008141
Jun 29, 2008144
Jul 6, 2008145
Jul 13, 2008129
Jul 20, 2008123
Jul 27, 2008125
Aug 3, 2008115
Aug 10, 2008114
Aug 17, 2008115
Aug 24, 2008116
Aug 31, 2008106
Sep 7, 2008101
Sep 14, 2008103
Sep 21, 2008107
Sep 28, 200893
Oct 5, 200880
Oct 12, 200872
Oct 19, 200865
Oct 26, 200868
Nov 2, 200861
Nov 9, 200857
Nov 16, 200850
Nov 23, 200855
Nov 30, 200842
Dec 7, 200847
Dec 14, 200843
Dec 21, 200838
Dec 28, 200846
Jan 4, 200941
Jan 11, 200942
Jan 18, 200946
Jan 26, 200942
Feb 2, 200940
Feb 9, 200938
Feb 16, 200940
Feb 23, 200944
Mar 2, 200946
Mar 9, 200945
Mar 16, 200953
Mar 23, 200952
Mar 30, 200952
Apr 6, 200952
Apr 13, 200950
Apr 20, 200951
Apr 27, 200953
May 4, 200959
May 11, 200956
May 18, 200962
May 25, 200967
Jun 1, 200968
Jun 8, 200972
Jun 15, 200969
Jun 22, 200969
Jun 29, 200966
Jul 6, 200960
Jul 13, 200963
Jul 20, 200968
Jul 27, 200969
Aug 3, 200971
Aug 10, 200967
Aug 17, 200974
Aug 24, 200973
Aug 31, 200968
Sep 7, 200969
Sep 14, 200972
Sep 21, 200966
Sep 28, 200970
Oct 5, 200972
Oct 12, 200979
Oct 19, 200980
Oct 26, 200979
Nov 2, 200978
Nov 9, 200977
Nov 16, 200978
Nov 23, 200976
Nov 30, 200976
Dec 7, 200970
Dec 14, 200974
Dec 21, 200978
Dec 28, 200980
Jan 4, 201083
Jan 11, 201078
Jan 18, 201074
Jan 25, 201073
Feb 1, 201072
Feb 8, 201074
Feb 15, 201080
Feb 22, 201080
Mar 1, 201082
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Mar 22, 201080
Mar 29, 201085
Apr 5, 201085
Apr 12, 201083
Apr 19, 201085
Apr 26, 201086
May 3, 201075
May 10, 201072
May 17, 201070
May 24, 201074
May 31, 201071
Jun 7, 201074
Jun 14, 201077
Jun 21, 201079
Jun 28, 201072
Jul 5, 201076
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Jul 19, 201079
Jul 26, 201079
Aug 2, 201081
Aug 9, 201076
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Sep 20, 201076
Sep 27, 201082
Oct 4, 201083
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Nov 1, 201083
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Nov 15, 201082
Nov 22, 201084
Nov 29, 201089
Dec 6, 201088
Dec 13, 201088
Dec 20, 201091
Dec 27, 201091
Jan 3, 201188
Jan 10, 201192
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Jan 31, 201189
Feb 7, 201185
Feb 14, 201190
Feb 21, 201198
Feb 28, 2011105
Mar 7, 2011101
Mar 14, 2011102
Mar 21, 2011106
Mar 28, 2011108
Apr 4, 2011113
Apr 11, 2011109
Apr 18, 2011112
Apr 25, 2011114
May 2, 201198
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Aug 1, 201187
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Nov 7, 201199
Nov 14, 201197
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Dec 5, 2011100
Dec 12, 201194
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Dec 26, 201199
Jan 2, 2012102
Jan 9, 201299
Jan 16, 201298
Jan 23, 2012100
Jan 30, 201298
Feb 6, 201299
Feb 13, 2012104
Feb 20, 2012110
Feb 27, 2012106
Mar 5, 2012107
Mar 12, 2012108
Mar 19, 2012107
Mar 26, 2012103
Apr 2, 2012103
Apr 9, 2012103
Apr 16, 2012104
Apr 23, 2012105
Apr 30, 201299
May 7, 201296
May 14, 201292
May 21, 201291
May 28, 201283
Jun 4, 201284
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Jun 18, 201280
Jun 25, 201285
Jul 2, 201284
Jul 9, 201287
Jul 16, 201292
Jul 23, 201290
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Aug 6, 201293
Aug 13, 201296
Aug 20, 201296
Aug 27, 201297
Sep 3, 201296
Sep 10, 201299
Sep 17, 201293
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Oct 22, 201286
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Jun 3, 201396
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Jun 17, 201394
Jun 24, 201396
Jul 1, 2013104
Jul 8, 2013106
Jul 15, 2013108
Jul 22, 2013105
Jul 29, 2013107
Aug 5, 2013106
Aug 12, 2013108
Aug 19, 2013106
Aug 26, 2013108
Sep 2, 2013110
Sep 9, 2013109
Sep 16, 2013105
Sep 23, 2013103
Sep 30, 2013104
Oct 7, 2013102
Oct 14, 2013101
Oct 21, 201398
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Dec 16, 201399
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Dec 30, 201394
Jan 6, 201493
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Feb 3, 2014100
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Feb 24, 2014103
Mar 3, 2014103
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Mar 24, 2014102
Mar 31, 2014101
Apr 7, 2014103
Apr 14, 2014105
Apr 21, 2014101
Apr 28, 2014100
May 5, 2014100
May 12, 2014102
May 19, 2014104
May 26, 2014103
Jun 2, 2014103
Jun 9, 2014107
Jun 16, 2014107
Jun 23, 2014106
Jun 30, 2014104
Jul 7, 2014100
Jul 14, 2014102
Jul 21, 2014102
Jul 28, 201498
Aug 4, 201497
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Aug 18, 201493
Aug 25, 201496
Sep 1, 201493
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Sep 22, 201493
Sep 29, 201490
Oct 6, 201486
Oct 13, 201482
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Nov 3, 201478
Nov 10, 201476
Nov 17, 201477
Nov 24, 201466
Dec 1, 201466
Dec 8, 201457
Dec 15, 201458
Dec 22, 201455
Dec 29, 201453
Jan 5, 201548
Jan 12, 201548
Jan 19, 201545
Jan 26, 201548
Feb 2, 201552
Feb 9, 201553
Feb 16, 201551
Feb 23, 201550
Mar 2, 201550
Mar 9, 201545
Mar 16, 201546
Mar 23, 201548
Mar 30, 201550
Apr 6, 201552
Apr 13, 201556
Apr 20, 201557
Apr 27, 201559
May 4, 201559
May 11, 201560
May 18, 201560
May 25, 201560
Jun 1, 201559
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Jun 15, 201560
Jun 22, 201560
Jun 29, 201556
Jul 6, 201553
Jul 13, 201551
Jul 20, 201548
Jul 27, 201547
Aug 3, 201544
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Aug 11, 201543
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Aug 13, 201542
Aug 14, 201542
Aug 16, 201542
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Aug 19, 201541
Aug 20, 201541
Aug 21, 201540
Aug 24, 201538
Aug 25, 201540
Aug 26, 201539
Aug 27, 201543
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Aug 31, 201548
Sep 1, 201544
Sep 2, 201546
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Sep 7, 201544
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Oct 1, 201546
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Oct 7, 201549
Oct 8, 201548
Oct 9, 201551
Oct 13, 201547
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Nov 2, 201546
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Nov 4, 201548
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Nov 30, 201542
Dec 1, 201542
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Dec 4, 201542
Dec 7, 201539
Dec 8, 201538
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Dec 14, 201535
Dec 15, 201537
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Dec 21, 201536
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Dec 31, 201537
Jan 1, 201637
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Jan 6, 201635
Jan 7, 201633
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Jan 14, 201631
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Jan 18, 201631
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Jan 20, 201629
Jan 21, 201628
Jan 22, 201631
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Jan 28, 201632
Jan 29, 201633
Feb 1, 201633
Feb 2, 201631
Feb 3, 201630
Feb 4, 201632
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Feb 8, 201630
Feb 9, 201630
Feb 10, 201629
Feb 11, 201626
Feb 12, 201627
Feb 15, 201630
Feb 16, 201630
Feb 17, 201632
Feb 18, 201634
Feb 19, 201632
Feb 23, 201633
Feb 24, 201631
Feb 25, 201632
Feb 26, 201634
Feb 29, 201633
Mar 1, 201634
Mar 2, 201634
Mar 4, 201635
Mar 7, 201636
Mar 8, 201638
Mar 9, 201637
Mar 10, 201638
Mar 11, 201639
Mar 14, 201638
Mar 15, 201636
Mar 16, 201637
Mar 17, 201639
Mar 18, 201641
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Mar 24, 201639
Mar 25, 201640
Mar 28, 201640
Mar 29, 201639
Mar 30, 201639
Mar 31, 201638
Apr 1, 201638
Apr 4, 201637
Apr 5, 201636
Apr 6, 201637
Apr 8, 201639
Apr 11, 201640
Apr 12, 201641
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Apr 18, 201639
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Apr 20, 201642
Apr 21, 201644
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Apr 27, 201645
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May 26, 201650
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Oct 7, 201650
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Mar 9, 201749
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Jan 15, 201864
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Jan 17, 201863
Jan 18, 201864
Jan 19, 201863
Jan 22, 201863
Jan 23, 201864
Jan 24, 201865
Jan 25, 201866
Jan 26, 201866
Jan 29, 201866
Jan 30, 201865
Jan 31, 201864
Feb 1, 201865
Feb 2, 201866
Feb 5, 201865
Feb 6, 201863
Feb 7, 201863
Feb 8, 201861
Feb 9, 201860
Feb 12, 201860
Feb 13, 201859
Feb 14, 201859
Feb 15, 201860
Feb 16, 201862
Feb 19, 201862
Feb 20, 201862
Feb 21, 201861
Feb 22, 201861
Feb 23, 201863
Feb 26, 201863
Feb 27, 201864
Feb 28, 201863
Mar 1, 201861
Mar 2, 201861
Mar 5, 201861
Mar 6, 201863
Mar 7, 201862
Mar 8, 201861
Mar 9, 201861
Mar 12, 201862
Mar 13, 201861
Mar 14, 201861
Mar 15, 201861
Mar 16, 201861
Mar 19, 201862
Mar 20, 201863
Mar 21, 201864
Mar 22, 201865
Mar 23, 201865
Mar 26, 201866
Mar 27, 201866
Mar 28, 201865
Mar 29, 201864
Mar 30, 201865
Apr 2, 201865
Apr 3, 201863
Apr 4, 201863
Apr 5, 201863
Apr 6, 201863
Apr 9, 201863
Apr 10, 201864
Apr 11, 201866
Apr 12, 201867
Apr 13, 201867
Apr 16, 201867
Apr 17, 201866
Apr 18, 201868
Apr 19, 201869
Apr 20, 201868
Apr 23, 201867
Apr 24, 201869
Apr 25, 201867
Apr 26, 201869
Apr 27, 201868
Apr 30, 201868
May 1, 201868
May 2, 201867
May 3, 201868
May 4, 201869
May 7, 201871
May 8, 201870
May 9, 201871
May 10, 201872
May 11, 201871
May 14, 201871
May 15, 201872
May 16, 201871
May 17, 201872
May 18, 201872
May 21, 201872
May 22, 201873
May 23, 201872
May 24, 201871
May 25, 201869
May 28, 201867
May 29, 201867
May 30, 201867
May 31, 201867
Jun 1, 201866
Jun 4, 201865
Jun 5, 201865
Jun 6, 201865
Jun 7, 201865
Jun 8, 201866
Jun 11, 201865
Jun 12, 201866
Jun 13, 201866
Jun 14, 201867
Jun 15, 201866
Jun 18, 201865
Jun 19, 201865
Jun 20, 201866
Jun 21, 201865
Jun 22, 201867
Jun 25, 201869
Jun 26, 201868
Jun 27, 201871
Jun 28, 201872
Jun 29, 201873
Jul 2, 201874
Jul 3, 201875
Jul 4, 201874
Jul 5, 201874
Jul 6, 201872
Jul 9, 201874
Jul 10, 201874
Jul 11, 201873
Jul 12, 201871
Jul 13, 201871
Jul 16, 201868
Jul 17, 201867
Jul 18, 201867
Jul 19, 201867
Jul 20, 201868
Jul 23, 201869
Jul 24, 201868
Jul 25, 201869
Jul 26, 201869
Jul 27, 201869
Jul 30, 201870
Jul 31, 201870
Aug 1, 201868
Aug 2, 201867
Aug 3, 201869
Aug 6, 201869
Aug 7, 201870
Aug 8, 201868
Aug 9, 201867
Aug 10, 201867
Aug 13, 201867
Aug 14, 201868
Aug 15, 201866
Aug 16, 201865
Aug 17, 201866
Aug 20, 201865
Aug 21, 201866
Aug 22, 201867
Aug 23, 201868
Aug 24, 201869
Aug 27, 201869
Aug 28, 201869
Aug 29, 201869
Aug 30, 201870
Aug 31, 201870
Sep 3, 201870
Sep 4, 201871
Sep 5, 201869
Sep 6, 201869
Sep 7, 201868
Sep 10, 201868
Sep 11, 201868
Sep 12, 201870
Sep 13, 201870
Sep 14, 201869
Sep 17, 201869
Sep 18, 201870
Sep 19, 201869
Sep 20, 201871
Sep 21, 201871
Sep 24, 201872
Sep 25, 201872
Sep 26, 201872
Sep 27, 201872
Sep 28, 201872
Oct 1, 201873
Oct 2, 201875
Oct 3, 201875
Oct 4, 201876
Oct 5, 201875
Oct 8, 201873
Oct 9, 201875
Oct 10, 201875
Oct 11, 201872
Oct 12, 201872
Oct 15, 201872
Oct 16, 201871
Oct 17, 201871
Oct 18, 201869
Oct 19, 201869
Oct 22, 201869
Oct 23, 201868
Oct 24, 201867
Oct 25, 201867
Oct 26, 201867
Oct 29, 201867
Oct 30, 201866
Oct 31, 201866
Nov 1, 201865
Nov 2, 201863
Nov 5, 201863
Nov 6, 201863
Nov 7, 201863
Nov 8, 201862
Nov 9, 201860
Nov 12, 201861
Nov 13, 201859
Nov 14, 201856
Nov 15, 201857
Nov 16, 201858
Nov 19, 201857
Nov 20, 201857
Nov 21, 201855
Nov 22, 201854
Nov 23, 201852
Nov 26, 201851
Nov 27, 201852
Nov 28, 201852
Nov 29, 201851
Nov 30, 201851
Dec 3, 201853
Dec 4, 201854
Dec 5, 201853
Dec 6, 201852
Dec 7, 201852
Dec 10, 201852
Dec 11, 201852
Dec 12, 201853
Dec 13, 201851
Dec 14, 201852
Dec 17, 201852
Dec 18, 201849
Dec 19, 201847
Dec 20, 201847
Dec 21, 201845
Dec 24, 201845
Dec 25, 201843
Dec 26, 201843
Dec 27, 201846
Dec 28, 201845
Dec 31, 201846
Jan 1, 201946
Jan 2, 201945
Jan 3, 201947
Jan 4, 201948
Jan 7, 201949
Jan 8, 201949
Jan 9, 201951
Jan 10, 201952
Jan 11, 201953
Jan 14, 201951
Jan 15, 201951
Jan 16, 201952
Jan 17, 201951
Jan 18, 201953
Jan 21, 201954
Jan 22, 201953
Jan 23, 201954
Jan 24, 201952
Jan 25, 201953
Jan 28, 201953
Jan 29, 201953
Jan 30, 201954
Jan 31, 201954
Feb 1, 201954
Feb 4, 201955
Feb 5, 201954
Feb 6, 201954
Feb 7, 201954
Feb 8, 201952
Feb 11, 201952
Feb 12, 201953
Feb 13, 201954
Feb 14, 201954
Feb 15, 201955
Feb 18, 201956
Feb 19, 201956
Feb 20, 201956
Feb 21, 201957
Feb 22, 201958
Feb 25, 201956
Feb 26, 201956
Feb 27, 201957
Feb 28, 201957
Mar 1, 201957
Mar 4, 201956
Mar 5, 201957
Mar 6, 201956
Mar 7, 201957
Mar 8, 201956
Mar 11, 201956
Mar 12, 201957
Mar 13, 201958
Mar 14, 201959
Mar 15, 201958
Mar 18, 201959
Mar 19, 201960
Mar 20, 201959
Mar 21, 201960
Mar 22, 201959
Mar 25, 201959
Mar 26, 201960
Mar 27, 201960
Mar 28, 201958
Mar 29, 201960
Apr 1, 201961
Apr 2, 201962
Apr 3, 201963
Apr 4, 201963
Apr 5, 201962
Apr 8, 201963
Apr 9, 201964
Apr 10, 201964
Apr 11, 201964
Apr 12, 201965
Apr 15, 201963
Apr 16, 201964
Apr 17, 201964
Apr 18, 201964
Apr 19, 201964
Apr 22, 201965
Apr 23, 201966
Apr 24, 201966
Apr 25, 201966
Apr 26, 201964
Apr 29, 201963
Apr 30, 201965
May 1, 201963
May 2, 201962
May 3, 201962
May 6, 201961
May 7, 201962
May 8, 201962
May 9, 201962
May 10, 201962
May 13, 201963
May 14, 201962
May 15, 201961
May 16, 201963
May 17, 201964
May 20, 201963
May 21, 201964
May 22, 201962
May 23, 201960
May 24, 201959
May 27, 201959
May 28, 201959
May 29, 201957
May 30, 201959
May 31, 201955
Jun 3, 201955
Jun 4, 201953
Jun 5, 201953
Jun 6, 201952
Jun 7, 201953
Jun 10, 201954
Jun 11, 201954
Jun 12, 201952
Jun 13, 201953
Jun 14, 201952
Jun 17, 201952
Jun 18, 201952
Jun 19, 201954
Jun 20, 201956
Jun 21, 201957
Jun 24, 201958
Jun 25, 201958
Jun 26, 201959
Jun 27, 201959
Jun 28, 201960
Jul 1, 201960
Jul 2, 201958
Jul 3, 201957
Jul 4, 201957
Jul 5, 201956
Jul 8, 201957
Jul 9, 201958
Jul 10, 201959
Jul 11, 201961
Jul 12, 201960
Jul 15, 201960
Jul 16, 201960
Jul 17, 201958
Jul 18, 201957
Jul 19, 201956
Jul 22, 201957
Jul 23, 201956
Jul 24, 201957
Jul 25, 201957
Jul 26, 201956
Jul 29, 201956
Jul 30, 201957
Jul 31, 201959
Aug 1, 201958
Aug 2, 201955
Aug 5, 201955
Aug 6, 201955
Aug 7, 201953
Aug 8, 201952
Aug 9, 201953
Aug 12, 201954
Aug 13, 201955
Aug 14, 201955
Aug 15, 201955
Aug 16, 201955
Aug 19, 201955
Aug 20, 201956
Aug 21, 201957
Aug 22, 201956
Aug 23, 201954
Aug 26, 201955
Aug 27, 201954
Aug 28, 201956
Aug 29, 201956
Aug 30, 201956
Sep 2, 201955
Sep 3, 201954
Sep 4, 201955
Sep 5, 201956
Sep 6, 201956
Sep 9, 201957
Sep 10, 201959
Sep 11, 201958
Sep 12, 201955
Sep 13, 201955
Sep 16, 201961
Sep 17, 201962
Sep 18, 201958
Sep 19, 201959
Sep 20, 201959
Sep 23, 201958
Sep 24, 201958
Sep 25, 201956
Sep 26, 201956
Sep 27, 201955
Sep 30, 201955
Oct 1, 201955
Oct 2, 201954
Oct 3, 201953
Oct 4, 201953
Oct 7, 201954
Oct 8, 201952
Oct 9, 201953
Oct 10, 201953
Oct 11, 201954
Oct 14, 201954
Oct 15, 201953
Oct 16, 201953
Oct 17, 201953
Oct 18, 201954
Oct 21, 201954
Oct 22, 201954
Oct 23, 201954
Oct 24, 201956
Oct 25, 201956
Oct 28, 201957
Oct 29, 201955
Oct 30, 201955
Oct 31, 201954
Nov 1, 201955
Nov 4, 201957
Nov 5, 201957
Nov 6, 201957
Nov 7, 201957
Nov 8, 201956
Nov 11, 201957
Nov 12, 201957
Nov 13, 201956
Nov 14, 201958
Nov 15, 201957
Nov 18, 201958
Nov 19, 201957
Nov 20, 201956
Nov 21, 201957
Nov 22, 201958
Nov 25, 201958
Nov 26, 201958
Nov 27, 201958
Nov 28, 201958
Nov 29, 201958
Dec 2, 201956
Dec 3, 201956
Dec 4, 201957
Dec 5, 201959
Dec 6, 201958
Dec 9, 201959
Dec 10, 201959
Dec 11, 201959
Dec 12, 201959
Dec 13, 201960
Dec 16, 201960
Dec 17, 201960
Dec 18, 201961
Dec 19, 201961
Dec 20, 201961
Dec 23, 201960
Dec 24, 201961
Dec 25, 201961
Dec 26, 201961
Dec 27, 201962
Dec 30, 201962
Dec 31, 201961
Jan 1, 202061
Jan 2, 202061
Jan 3, 202063
Jan 6, 202064
Jan 7, 202063
Jan 8, 202062
Jan 9, 202060
Jan 10, 202060
Jan 13, 202059
Jan 14, 202059
Jan 15, 202058
Jan 16, 202058
Jan 17, 202059
Jan 20, 202059
Jan 21, 202058
Jan 22, 202058
Jan 23, 202056
Jan 24, 202055
Jan 27, 202053
Jan 28, 202054
Jan 29, 202054
Jan 30, 202052
Jan 31, 202053
Feb 3, 202052
Feb 4, 202051
Feb 5, 202051
Feb 6, 202051
Feb 7, 202051
Feb 10, 202050
Feb 11, 202051
Feb 12, 202051
Feb 13, 202051
Feb 14, 202052
Feb 17, 202052
Feb 18, 202051
Feb 19, 202053
Feb 20, 202054
Feb 21, 202053
Feb 24, 202051
Feb 25, 202051
Feb 26, 202049
Feb 27, 202047
Feb 28, 202046
Mar 2, 202045
Mar 3, 202048
Mar 4, 202048
Mar 5, 202047
Mar 6, 202044
Mar 9, 202032
Mar 10, 202033
Mar 11, 202033
Mar 12, 202031
Mar 13, 202034
Mar 16, 202029
Mar 17, 202029
Mar 18, 202025
Mar 19, 202022
Mar 20, 202026
Mar 23, 202023
Mar 24, 202024
Mar 25, 202024
Mar 26, 202024
Mar 27, 202022
Mar 30, 202020
Mar 31, 202021
Apr 1, 202020
Apr 2, 202022
Apr 3, 202028
Apr 6, 202027
Apr 7, 202027
Apr 8, 202024
Apr 9, 202026
Apr 10, 202023
Apr 13, 202023
Apr 14, 202021
Apr 15, 202020
Apr 16, 202020
Apr 17, 202025
Apr 20, 202022
Apr 21, 202016
Apr 22, 202013
Apr 23, 202016
Apr 24, 202017
Apr 27, 202013
Apr 28, 202011
Apr 29, 202015
Apr 30, 202017
May 1, 202020
May 4, 202020
May 5, 202023
May 6, 202023
May 7, 202026
May 8, 202024
May 11, 202025
May 12, 202025
May 13, 202026
May 14, 202026
May 15, 202029
May 18, 202032
May 19, 202032
May 20, 202033
May 21, 202034
May 22, 202033
May 25, 202033
May 26, 202034
May 27, 202034
May 29, 202033
Jun 1, 202035
Jun 2, 202036
Jun 3, 202037
Jun 4, 202037
Jun 5, 202039
Jun 8, 202039
Jun 9, 202038
Jun 10, 202038
Jun 11, 202037
Jun 12, 202037
Jun 15, 202035
Jun 16, 202038
Jun 17, 202038
Jun 18, 202038
Jun 19, 202040
Jun 22, 202040
Jun 23, 202041
Jun 24, 202040
Jun 25, 202037
Jun 26, 202038
Jun 29, 202039
Jun 30, 202039
Jul 1, 202039
Jul 2, 202040
Jul 3, 202040
Jul 6, 202041
Jul 7, 202040
Jul 8, 202041
Jul 9, 202041
Jul 10, 202039
Jul 13, 202040
Jul 14, 202039
Jul 15, 202041
Jul 16, 202041
Jul 17, 202041
Jul 20, 202040
Jul 21, 202042
Jul 22, 202041
Jul 23, 202042
Jul 24, 202041
Jul 27, 202042
Jul 28, 202041
Jul 29, 202041
Jul 30, 202041
Jul 31, 202040
Aug 3, 202040
Aug 4, 202040
Aug 5, 202043
Aug 6, 202042
Aug 7, 202042
Aug 10, 202042
Aug 11, 202043
Aug 12, 202042
Aug 13, 202043
Aug 14, 202042
Aug 17, 202042
Aug 18, 202043
Aug 19, 202043
Aug 20, 202043
Aug 21, 202042
Aug 24, 202043
Aug 25, 202043
Aug 26, 202043
Aug 27, 202043
Aug 28, 202043
Aug 31, 202043
Sep 1, 202043
Sep 2, 202043
Sep 3, 202041
Sep 4, 202041
Sep 7, 202039
Sep 8, 202038
Sep 9, 202038
Sep 10, 202038
Sep 11, 202037
Sep 14, 202037
Sep 15, 202038
Sep 16, 202039
Sep 17, 202040
Sep 18, 202041
Sep 21, 202040
Sep 22, 202040
Sep 23, 202040
Sep 24, 202040
Sep 25, 202040
Sep 28, 202041
Sep 29, 202040
Sep 30, 202039
Oct 1, 202040
Oct 2, 202037
Oct 5, 202039
Oct 6, 202040
Oct 7, 202040
Oct 8, 202041
Oct 9, 202041
Oct 12, 202040
Oct 13, 202040
Oct 14, 202040
Oct 15, 202040
Oct 16, 202041
Oct 19, 202041
Oct 20, 202041
Oct 21, 202041
Oct 22, 202040
Oct 23, 202041
Oct 26, 202039
Oct 27, 202039
Oct 28, 202038
Oct 29, 202036
Oct 30, 202036
Nov 2, 202035
Nov 3, 202038
Nov 4, 202039
Nov 5, 202039
Nov 6, 202038
Nov 9, 202040
Nov 10, 202041
Nov 11, 202042
Nov 12, 202041
Nov 13, 202041
Nov 16, 202042
Nov 17, 202041
Nov 18, 202043
Nov 19, 202042
Nov 20, 202042
Nov 23, 202043
Nov 24, 202044
Nov 25, 202045
Nov 26, 202045
Nov 27, 202045
Nov 30, 202045
Dec 1, 202045
Dec 2, 202044
Dec 3, 202045
Dec 4, 202046
Dec 7, 202046
Dec 8, 202046
Dec 9, 202046
Dec 10, 202046
Dec 11, 202047
Dec 14, 202047
Dec 15, 202047
Dec 16, 202048
Dec 17, 202048
Dec 18, 202049
Dec 21, 202048
Dec 22, 202048
Dec 23, 202047
Dec 24, 202048
Dec 25, 202048
Dec 28, 202049
Dec 29, 202048
Dec 30, 202048
Dec 31, 202048
Jan 1, 202148
Jan 4, 202148
Jan 5, 202148
Jan 6, 202150
Jan 7, 202151
Jan 8, 202152
Jan 11, 202152
Jan 12, 202153
Jan 13, 202153
Jan 14, 202153
Jan 15, 202153
Jan 18, 202152
Jan 19, 202153
Jan 20, 202154
Jan 21, 202153
Jan 22, 202152
Jan 25, 202152
Jan 26, 202153
Jan 27, 202153
Jan 28, 202153
Jan 29, 202153
Feb 1, 202153
Feb 2, 202155
Feb 3, 202155
Feb 4, 202156
Feb 5, 202157
Feb 8, 202157
Feb 9, 202158
Feb 10, 202159
Feb 11, 202158
Feb 12, 202158
Feb 15, 202161
Feb 16, 202160
Feb 17, 202161
Feb 18, 202162
Feb 19, 202160
Feb 22, 202160
Feb 23, 202162
Feb 24, 202162
Feb 25, 202163
Feb 26, 202162
Mar 1, 202162
Mar 2, 202161
Mar 3, 202161
Mar 4, 202162
Mar 5, 202165
Mar 8, 202166
Mar 9, 202166
Mar 10, 202165
Mar 11, 202165
Mar 12, 202166
Mar 15, 202165
Mar 16, 202164
Mar 17, 202164
Mar 18, 202164
Mar 19, 202160
Mar 22, 202161
Mar 23, 202159
Mar 24, 202159
Mar 25, 202159
Mar 26, 202160
Mar 29, 202161
Mar 30, 202161
Mar 31, 202161
Apr 1, 202160
Apr 2, 202161
Apr 5, 202160
Apr 6, 202160
Apr 7, 202160
Apr 8, 202159
Apr 9, 202159
Apr 12, 202160
Apr 13, 202160
Apr 14, 202161
Apr 15, 202163
Apr 16, 202164
Apr 19, 202163
Apr 20, 202164
Apr 21, 202161
Apr 22, 202162
Apr 23, 202161
Apr 26, 202161
Apr 27, 202162
Apr 28, 202163
Apr 29, 202165
Apr 30, 202164
May 3, 202164
May 4, 202165
May 5, 202167
May 6, 202165
May 7, 202164
May 10, 202165
May 11, 202164
May 12, 202166
May 13, 202165
May 14, 202164
May 17, 202165
May 18, 202167
May 19, 202164
May 20, 202163
May 21, 202163
May 24, 202164
May 25, 202166
May 26, 202166
May 27, 202166
May 28, 202167
May 31, 202167
Jun 1, 202169
Jun 2, 202168
Jun 3, 202169
Jun 4, 202169
Jun 7, 202169
Jun 8, 202169
Jun 9, 202170
Jun 10, 202170
Jun 11, 202170
Jun 14, 202172
Jun 15, 202172
Jun 16, 202172
Jun 17, 202172
Jun 18, 202170
Jun 21, 202171
Jun 22, 202173
Jun 23, 202174
Jun 24, 202173
Jun 25, 202173
Jun 28, 202174
Jun 29, 202173
Jun 30, 202174
Jul 1, 202175
Jul 2, 202175
Jul 5, 202175
Jul 6, 202176
Jul 7, 202174
Jul 8, 202172
Jul 9, 202174
Jul 12, 202174
Jul 13, 202174
Jul 14, 202175
Jul 15, 202172
Jul 16, 202172
Jul 19, 202169
Jul 20, 202166
Jul 21, 202168
Jul 22, 202170
Jul 23, 202172
Jul 26, 202172
Jul 27, 202172
Jul 28, 202172
Jul 29, 202173
Jul 30, 202174
Aug 2, 202173
Aug 3, 202170
Aug 4, 202169
Aug 5, 202169
Aug 6, 202170
Aug 9, 202166
Aug 10, 202167
Aug 11, 202168
Aug 12, 202169
Aug 13, 202169
Aug 16, 202166
Aug 17, 202167
Aug 18, 202167
Aug 19, 202163
Aug 20, 202162
Aug 23, 202164
Aug 24, 202166
Aug 25, 202168
Aug 26, 202168
Aug 27, 202169
Aug 30, 202169
Aug 31, 202168
Sep 1, 202169
Sep 2, 202169
Sep 3, 202170
Sep 6, 202169
Sep 7, 202168
Sep 8, 202169
Sep 9, 202169
Sep 10, 202169
Sep 13, 202171
Sep 14, 202171
Sep 15, 202172
Sep 16, 202172
Sep 17, 202172
Sep 20, 202170
Sep 21, 202171
Sep 22, 202171
Sep 23, 202172
Sep 24, 202173
Sep 27, 202176
Sep 28, 202176
Sep 29, 202175
Sep 30, 202174

20092009201020102011201120122012201320132014201420152015201620162017201720182018201920192020202020212021JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

DatetimeCrude Oil Futures, Continuous Contract (CL1)
Feb 17, 200899
Feb 24, 2008102
Mar 2, 2008106
Mar 9, 2008110
Mar 16, 2008102
Mar 23, 2008105
Mar 30, 2008106
Apr 6, 2008110
Apr 13, 2008116
Apr 20, 2008118
Apr 27, 2008116
May 4, 2008126
May 11, 2008127
May 18, 2008132
May 25, 2008127
Jun 1, 2008138
Jun 8, 2008135
Jun 15, 2008135
Jun 22, 2008141
Jun 29, 2008144
Jul 6, 2008145
Jul 13, 2008129
Jul 20, 2008123
Jul 27, 2008125
Aug 3, 2008115
Aug 10, 2008114
Aug 17, 2008115
Aug 24, 2008116
Aug 31, 2008106
Sep 7, 2008101
Sep 14, 2008103
Sep 21, 2008107
Sep 28, 200893
Oct 5, 200880
Oct 12, 200872
Oct 19, 200865
Oct 26, 200868
Nov 2, 200861
Nov 9, 200857
Nov 16, 200850
Nov 23, 200855
Nov 30, 200842
Dec 7, 200847
Dec 14, 200843
Dec 21, 200838
Dec 28, 200846
Jan 4, 200941
Jan 11, 200942
Jan 18, 200946
Jan 26, 200942
Feb 2, 200940
Feb 9, 200938
Feb 16, 200940
Feb 23, 200944
Mar 2, 200946
Mar 9, 200945
Mar 16, 200953
Mar 23, 200952
Mar 30, 200952
Apr 6, 200952
Apr 13, 200950
Apr 20, 200951
Apr 27, 200953
May 4, 200959
May 11, 200956
May 18, 200962
May 25, 200967
Jun 1, 200968
Jun 8, 200972
Jun 15, 200969
Jun 22, 200969
Jun 29, 200966
Jul 6, 200960
Jul 13, 200963
Jul 20, 200968
Jul 27, 200969
Aug 3, 200971
Aug 10, 200967
Aug 17, 200974
Aug 24, 200973
Aug 31, 200968
Sep 7, 200969
Sep 14, 200972
Sep 21, 200966
Sep 28, 200970
Oct 5, 200972
Oct 12, 200979
Oct 19, 200980
Oct 26, 200979
Nov 2, 200978
Nov 9, 200977
Nov 16, 200978
Nov 23, 200976
Nov 30, 200976
Dec 7, 200970
Dec 14, 200974
Dec 21, 200978
Dec 28, 200980
Jan 4, 201083
Jan 11, 201078
Jan 18, 201074
Jan 25, 201073
Feb 1, 201072
Feb 8, 201074
Feb 15, 201080
Feb 22, 201080
Mar 1, 201082
Mar 8, 201081
Mar 15, 201081
Mar 22, 201080
Mar 29, 201085
Apr 5, 201085
Apr 12, 201083
Apr 19, 201085
Apr 26, 201086
May 3, 201075
May 10, 201072
May 17, 201070
May 24, 201074
May 31, 201071
Jun 7, 201074
Jun 14, 201077
Jun 21, 201079
Jun 28, 201072
Jul 5, 201076
Jul 12, 201076
Jul 19, 201079
Jul 26, 201079
Aug 2, 201081
Aug 9, 201076
Aug 16, 201074
Aug 23, 201076
Aug 30, 201074
Sep 6, 201076
Sep 13, 201073
Sep 20, 201076
Sep 27, 201082
Oct 4, 201083
Oct 11, 201081
Oct 18, 201082
Oct 25, 201081
Nov 1, 201083
Nov 8, 201085
Nov 15, 201082
Nov 22, 201084
Nov 29, 201089
Dec 6, 201088
Dec 13, 201088
Dec 20, 201091
Dec 27, 201091
Jan 3, 201188
Jan 10, 201192
Jan 17, 201189
Jan 24, 201189
Jan 31, 201189
Feb 7, 201185
Feb 14, 201190
Feb 21, 201198
Feb 28, 2011105
Mar 7, 2011101
Mar 14, 2011102
Mar 21, 2011106
Mar 28, 2011108
Apr 4, 2011113
Apr 11, 2011109
Apr 18, 2011112
Apr 25, 2011114
May 2, 201198
May 9, 201199
May 16, 2011100
May 23, 2011101
May 30, 2011101
Jun 6, 201199
Jun 13, 201193
Jun 20, 201191
Jun 27, 201195
Jul 4, 201197
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latest update Crude Oil Futures, Continuous Contract (CL1):  [74] – 2021/9/30

MINYAK MENTAH DI INDONESIA

Produksi Minyak yang Menurun dan Konsumsi Minyak yang Meningkat di Indonesia

Sejak tahun 1990an produksi minyak mentah Indonesia telah mengalami tren penurunan yang berkelanjutan karena kurangnya eksplorasi dan investasi di sektor ini. Di beberapa tahun terakhir sektor minyak dan gas negara ini sebenarnya menghambat pertumbuhan PDB. Target-target produksi minyak, ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah setiap awal tahun, tidak tercapai untuk beberapa tahun berturut-turut karena kebanyakan produksi minyak berasal dari ladang-ladang minyak yang sudah menua. Saat ini, Indonesia memiliki kapasitas penyulingan minyak yang kira-kira sama dengan satu dekade lalu, mengindikasikan bahwa ada keterbatasan perkembangan dalam produksi minyak, yang menyebabkan kebutuhan saat ini untuk mengimpor minyak demi memenuhi permintaan domestik.

Penurunan produksi minyak Indonesia dikombinasikan dengan permintaan domestik yang meningkat mengubah Indonesia menjadi importir minyak dari tahun 2004 sampai saat ini, menyebabkan Indonesia harus menghentikan keanggotaan jangka panjangnya (1962-2008) di OPEC. Kendati begitu, Indonesia akan bergabung kembali dengan OPEC pada Desember 2015.

Tabel di bawah menunjukkan produksi minyak yang menurun selama satu dekade terakhir. Tabel ini dibagi dalam dua angka produksi, yang pertama diambil dari perusahaan minyak dan gas multinasional BP Global (angka-angkanya mencakup minyak mentah, shale oil, oil sands dan gas alam cair), dan angka-angka produksi yang kedua bersumber dari Satuan Kerja Khusus Pelaksana Kegiatan Usaha Hulu Minyak dan Gas Bumi (SKK Migas) dari Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (angka-angka ini mencakup minyak mentah dan kondensat minyak).

Produksi Minyak Bumi Indonesia¹:

  2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
BP Global  996  9721,003  9901,003   942  918  882  852  825
SKKMigas1,006  954  977  949  945  900  860  826  794  786

¹ dalam ribuan barrels per day (bpd)
Sumber: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016 and SKKMigas

Kurangnya eksplorasi dan investasi-investasi lain di sektor minyak ini telah menyebabkan penurunan dalam produksi minyak Indonesia yang disebabkan karena manajemen yang lemah dari pemerintah, birokrasi yang berlebihan, kerangka peraturan yang tidak jelas serta ketidakjelasan hukum mengenai kontrak. Hal ini menciptakan iklim investasi yang tidak menarik bagi para investor, terutama bila melibatkan investasi jangka panjang yang mahal.

Secara kontras, konsumsi minyak Indonesia menunjukkan tren naik yang stabil. Karena jumlah penduduk yang bertumbuh, peningkatan jumlah penduduk kelas menengah, dan pertumbuhan ekonomi; permintaan untuk bahan bakar terus-menerus meningkat. Karena produksi domestik tidak bisa memenuhi permintaan domestik, Indonesia mengimpor sekitar 350.000 sampai 500.000 barel bahan bakar per hari dari beberapa negara.

Konsumsi Minyak di Indonesia:

  2005  2006  2007  2008  2009  2010  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Bpd¹1,3031,2441,3181,2871,2971,4021,5891,6311,6431,6761,628

¹ dalam ribuan
Sumber: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016

Kebanyakan proses produksi minyak Indonesia terkonsentrasi di cekungan-cekungan yang ada di wilayah barat negara ini. Namun, karena hanya sedikit penemuan minyak baru yang signifikan di wilayah Barat ini, Pemerintah telah mengubah fokusnya ke wilayah Timur Indonesia. Kendati begitu, cadangan minyak yang terbukti di seluruh negara ini telah turun dengan cepat menurut sebuah publikasi dari perusahaan minyak BP. Di 1991 Indonesia memiliki 5,9 miliar barel cadangan minyak terbukti namun jumlah ini telah menurun menjadi 3,7 miliar barel pada akhir 2014. Sekitar 60% dari potensi ladang minyak baru Indonesia berlokasi di laut dalam yang membutuhkan teknologi maju dan investasi modal yang besar untuk memulai produksi.

Kebijakan Pemerintah yang Mempengaruhi Konsumsi Minyak Indonesia

Salah satu kebijakan Pemerintah yang telah sangat dikritik adalah kebijakan subsidi bahan bakar yang berumur beberapa dekade yang – untuk sebagian besar – disubsidi oleh Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara (APBN). Walaupun kebijakan ini bertujuan mendukung masyarakat miskin Indonesia, segmen yang lebih mampu (termasuk kelas menengah) yang paling banyak diuntungkan oleh kebijakan bahan bakar bersubsidi.

Terlebih lagi, kebijakan ini menyebabkan peningkatan signifikan untuk permintaan bahan bakar, dan karenanya menyebabkan tekanan besar pada defisit APBN (bahkan hal ini mengimplikasikan bahwa APBN secara langsung terhubung dengan harga minyak yang cenderung volatil). Alokasi-alokasi ekstra untuk memenuhi permintaan bahan bakar bersubsidi yang meningkat dilakukan setiap tahunnya, sementara harga penetapan yang rendah menyebabkan distorsi pasar. Pengurangan atau penghapusan subsidi bahan bakar adalah isu yang sangat sensitif di Indonesia karena hal ini menyebabkan demonstrasi masal di seluruh negeri (mengimplikasikan risiko-risiko politik untuk elit yang memerintah).

Setelah dua kenaikan harga bahan bakar bersubsidi di Juni 2013 dan November 2014 (memicu inflasi tinggi dan demonstrasi), Pemerintah Indonesia akhirnya memutuskan untuk menghapuskan subsidi bensin pada Januari 2015 (sebuah tindakan yang relatif mudah karena rendahnya harga minyak bumi dunia pada awal 2015) sambil memperkenalkan subsidi tetap sebesar Rp 1.000 per liter untuk diesel. Tindakan ini didukung oleh organisasi-organisasi internasional seperti Bank Dunia dan International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Kontribusi Minyak untuk Perekonomian Domestik Indonesia

Sektor minyak dan gas Indonesia secara rutin berkontribusi signifikan untuk perekonomian Indonesia melalui pendapatan ekspor dunia dan cadangan devisa negara. Kendati begitu, karena kontribusi minyak telah menurun selama satu dekade terakhir, begitu pula dengan kontribusinya untuk APBN, Saat ini, kombinasi minyak dan gas berkontribusi untuk sekitar 13% dari pendapatan domestik (di tahun 1990 angka ini mencapai 40%). Seperti yang disebutkan di atas, sektor minyak saat ini sebenarnya menghambat perekonomian Indonesia untuk mencapai level pertumbuhan yang lebih tinggi.

Menurut informasi dari Kementerian Energi dan Sumberdaya Mineral (ESDM), cadangan minyak mentah terbukti yang ada saat ini akan bertahan untuk sekitar 23 tahun. Kebanyakan produksi minyak di Indonesia dilaksanakan oleh para kontrakor asing menggunakan pengaturan kontrak pembagian produksi. Chevron Pacific Indonesia, anak perusahaan Chevron Corporation, adalah produsen minyak mentah terbesar di negara ini, berkontribusi sekitar 40% dari produksi nasional. Pemain-pemain besar lainnya di industri minyak Indonesia adalah Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) Pertamina, Total, ConocoPhillips, PetroChina, CNOOC, Medco, BP, Kodeco, dan Exxon Mobil.

Proyek Minyak Cepu; Ladang Banyu Urip

Tabel di atas menunjukkan bahwa produksi minyak Indonesia telah terus menurun. Kendati begitu, meskipun beberapa kontraktor minyak & gas di Indonesia telah mengurangi aktivitas-aktivitas pengeboran mereka karena rendahnya harga minyak, ada prediksi rebound karena sejumlah ladang minyak besar Indonesia akan mulai beroperasi.

Ladang Minyak Banyu Urip di Jawa Timur, bagian dari Blok Cepu, memiliki cadangan minyak terbesar (mengandung sekitar 450 juta barel minyak) yang belum dieksploitasi dan dapat berkontribusi secara signifikan untuk volume produksi minyak Indonesia. Proyek bernilai 2,5 miliar dollar Amerika Serikat (AS) ini, yang dikelola Exxon Mobil dan Pertamina dengan kepemilikan saham masing-masing 45% (melalui anak-anak perusahaannya Mobil Cepu dan Pertamina EP Cepu), mulai beroperasi di 2015. Produksi diperkirakan untuk mencapai tingkat puncak pada 165.000 barel per hari di 2016.

Lebih lanjut lagi, Ladang Minyak Bukit Tua (bagian dari Blok Ketapang di Jawa Timur, dioperasikan oleh Petronas Carigali) mulai beroperasi di bulan Maret 2015 dan produksi mungkin meningkat menjadi 20.000 barel per hari pada akhir 2015.

PROYEKSI MASA MENDATANG SEKTOR MINYAK DI INDONESIA

Mirip dengan banyak negara-negara lain, Indonesia berusaha mengurangi ketergantungannya pada minyak sebagai sumber energi karena harga minyak yang tinggi dan masalah lingkungan hidup. Saat ini, kira-kira 50% energi negara ini bersumber dari minyak; angka yang ingin dikurangi Pemerintah menjadi 23% pada tahun 2025 dengan menempatkan lebih banyak penekanan pada sumber-sumber terbarukan dan batubara.

  Energy Mix
      2011
 Energy Mix
      2025
Minyak       50%       23%
Batubara       24%       30%
Gas Alam       20%       20%
Energi Terbarukan        6%       26%

Sumber: Kementerian Energi dan Sumberdaya Mineral (ESDM)

Pemerintah Indonesia masih memiliki harapan tinggi untuk memulihkan kekuatan sektor minyak karena negara ini masih memiliki cadangan minyak yang besar, dan permintaan minyak (terutama domestik) yang meningkat. Sementara itu, industri minyak tetap industri yang menguntungkan (walaupun harga telah sangat menurun di 2015) seperti yang dibuktikan oleh angka-angka laba bersih Pertamina. Kendati begitu, akan dibutuhkan usaha-usaha serius dari semua pemangku kepentingan (terutama Pemerintah Indonesia) untuk kembali mencapai kuantitas produksi lebih dari 1 juta barel (sebuah target ambisius yang masih ditargetkan Pemerintah).

Dalam rangka mencapai target ini, dibutuhkan investasi-investasi skala besar dan didukung oleh kerangka peraturan yang transparan dan pasti (yang juga memperkirakan koordinasi yang baik antara berbagai kementerian dan pemerintah-pemerintah daerah). Kurangnya investasi dalam eksplorasi minyak yang baru telah menyebabkan penurunan level produksi minyak selama dua dekade terakhir karena penuaan ladang-ladang minyak negara ini. Bila Pemerintah tidak menyediakan insentif-insentif yang menstimulasi investasi-investasi dalam pengembangan sektor minyak hilir, tren penurunan ini kecil kemungkinannya dapat berubah arah.

Sumber : https://www.indonesia-investments.com/id/bisnis/komoditas/minyak-bumi/item267?

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– Accounting Service
– Peningkatan Profit Bisnis (Increased Profit Business Service)
– Pemeriksaan Pengelolaan (Management Keuangan Dan Akuntansi, Due Diligent)
– Konsultan Pajak (Tax Consultant)
– Studi Kelayakan (Feasibility Study)
– Projek Proposal / Media Pembiayaan
– Pembuatan Perusahaan Baru
– Jasa Digital Marketing (DIMA)
– Jasa Digital Ekosistem (DEKO)
– Jasa Digital Ekonomi (DEMI)
– 10 Peta Uang Blockchain

Hubungi: Widi Prihartanadi / Wendy Via Jonata :0877 0070 0705 / 0811 1085 705

Email: headoffice@jasakonsultankeuangan.co.id
cc:
jasakonsultankeuanganindonesia@gmail.com
jasakonsultankeuangan.co.id


WebSite :

https://jasakonsultankeuangan.co.id/

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